Pagan World Glossary

In this glossary, PW students will find Pagan terms, prayers and more.

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13 Goals of a Witch

I Know yourself

II Know your craft

III Learn

IV Apply knowledge with wisdom

V Achieve balance

VI Keep your words in good order

VII Keep your thoughts in good order

VIII Celebrate life

IX Attune with the cycles of the earth

X Breath and eat correctly

XI Exercise

XII Meditate

XIII Honor the Goddess

13 Principles Of Belief:

The Council of American Witches finds it necessary to define modern Witchcraft in terms of the American experience and needs.


We are not bound by traditions from other times and other cultures, and owe no allegiance to any person or power greater than the Divinity manifest through our own being.


As American Witches, we welcome and respect all life-affirming teachings and traditions, and seek to learn from all and to share our learning within our council.


It is in this spirit of welcome and cooperation that we adopt these few principles of Wiccan belief. In seeking to be inclusive, we do not wish to open ourselves to the destruction of our group by those on self-serving power trips, or to philosophies and practices contradictory to these principles. In seeking to exclude those ways contradictory to ours, we do not want to deny participation with us to any who are sincerely interested in our knowledge and beliefs, regardless of race, color, sex, age, national or cultural origins, or sexual preference.


We therefore ask only that those who seek to identify with us accept these few basic principles:


l) We practice rites to attune ourselves with the natural rhythm of life forces marked by the phases of the Moon an the seasonal quarters and cross-quarters.




2) We recognize that our intelligence gives us unique responsibility toward our environment. We seek to live in harmony with Nature, in ecological balance offering fulfillment to life and consciousness within an evolutionary concept




3) We acknowledge a depth of power far greater than is apparent to the average person. Because it is far greater than ordinary, it is sometimes called "supernatural", but we see it as lying within that which is naturally potential to all.




4) We conceive of the Creative Power in the Universe as manifesting through polarity-as masculine and feminine-and that this same creative power lives in all people, and functions through the interaction for the masculine and feminine. We value neither above the other, knowing each to be supportive of the other. We value sexuality as pleasure, as the symbol and embodiment of Life, and as one of the sources of energies used in magical practices and religious worship.




5) We recognize both outer worlds and inner, or psychological world sand sometimes known as the Spiritual World, the Collective Unconscious and Inner Planes, etc. and we see in the interaction of


these two dimensions the basis for paranormal phenomena and magical exercises. We neglect neither dimension for the other, seeing both as necessary for our fulfillment.




6) We do not recognize any authoritarian hierarchy, but do honor those who teach, respect those who share their greater knowledge and wisdom, and acknowledge those who have congruously given of themselves in leadership.




 7) We see religion, magic, and wisdom-in-living as being united in the way one views the world and philosophy of life, which we identify as Witchcraft or the Wiccan Way.




 8) Calling oneself "Witch" does not make a witch-but neither does heredity itself, or the collecting of titles, degrees, and initiations. A Witch seeks to control the forces within her/himself that makes life possible in order to live wisely and well, without harm to others, and in harmony with Nature.




9) We acknowledge that it is the affirmation and fulfillment of life, in a continuation of evolution and development of consciousness that gives meaning to the Universe we know, and to our personal role within it.




  10) Our only animosity toward Christianity, or toward any other religion or philosophy-of-life, is to the extent that its institutions have claimed to be "the one true, right, and only way" and have sought to deny freedom to others and to suppress other ways of religious practices and beliefs




11) As American Witches, we are not threatened by debates on the history of the Craft, the origins of various terms, the legitimacy of various aspects of different traditions. We are concerned with our present and future.




  12) We do not accept the concept of "absolute evil", nor do we worship any entity known as "Satan" or "the Devil" as defined by Christian Tradition. We do not seek power through the suffering of others, nor do we accept the concept that personal beliefs can only be derived by denial to another.




  13) We work within Nature for that which is contributor to our health and well-being.


Basic Laws

 and God and receive Their love.


2) Keep the Sabbats and Esbats to the best of your abilities, for to do otherwise is to lessen you connections with the God and Goddess.


3) Harm none. This, the oldest law, is not open to interpretation or


4) Shed not blood in ritual; the God and Goddess need not blood to be duly worshiped.

5) Those of our way are kind to ALL creatures for hurtful thoughts are quite draining and aren't worth the loss of energy. Misery is self-created; so too is joy, so create joy and disdain misery and unhappiness. And this is within your power. So harm not.

6) Teach only what you know, to the best of your ability, to those students whom you choose, but teach not to those who would use your instructions for destruction or control. Also teach not to boost pride, for ever remember: she who teaches for vain-glory shall take little pride in her handiwork; she who teaches out of love shall been folded in the arms of the God and Goddess.

7) Ever remember that if you would be of our way, keep the Law close to your heart, for it is the nature of the Wicca to keep the Law.


8) If ever the need arises, any law may be changed or discarded, and new laws written to replace them, so long as the new laws don't breakthe oldest law of all: harm none


Basic Laws 2

l) We are of the Old Ways, among those who walk with the Goddess and God and receive their love.

2) Keep the Sabbats and Esbats to the best of your abilities, for to do otherwise is to lessen you connections with the God and Goddess.

3) Harm none. This, the oldest law, is not open to interpretation or change.

4) Shed not blood in ritual; the God and Goddess need not blood to be duly worshiped.

5) Those of our way are kind to ALL creatures for hurtful thoughts are quite draining and aren't worth the loss of energy. Misery is self-created; so too is joy, so create joy and disdain misery and unhappiness. And this is within your power. So harm not.

6) Teach only what you know, to the best of your ability, to those students whom you choose, but teach not to those who would use your instructions for destruction or control. Also teach not to boost pride, for ever remember: she who teaches for vain-glory shall take little pride in her handiwork; she who teaches out of love shall been folded in the arms of the God and Goddess.

7) Ever remember that if you would be of our way, keep the Law close to your heart, for it is the nature of the Wicca to keep the Law.

8) If ever the need arises, any law may be changed or discarded, and new laws written to replace them, so long as the new laws don't break the oldest law of all: harm none


Holy King Chant

Come rend the sky as under with the rain and thunder.

Mighty Hunter, wond'rous horns Life to death, and is reborn Hail the Horned One, great is he! Runs the Wheel of the Year as Three - Brother, Lover, Son is he With his Lady's company

Hail the Horned One! Hail the Lord Sun!


Law of power

l) The Power shall not be used to bring harm, to

Injure or control others. But if the need arises, the

Power shall be used to protect your life or the lives

of others.

2) The Power is used only as need dictates.

3) The Power can be used for your own gain, as long

as by doing so you harm none.

4) It is unwise to accept money for use of the Power,

for it quickly controls its taker. Be not as those of other religions.

5) Use not the Power for prideful gain, for such

cheapens the mysteries of Wicca and magic.

6) Ever remember that the Power is the sacred gift of

the God and Godess, and should never be misused

or abused. ~And this is the Law of the Power~


The Wiccan Rede: "An it harm none, do what you will."

This law is about the only universally accepted "text" among

Wiccans and Pagans. It is deceptively simple. It is not

blanket permission to do whatever you want. It is an

admonition to consider the harm done to others in each of

your actions. What is the definition of "harm?" That is

something each person must consider with action they take.


The Law of Threefold Return

When you know that any energy you send out into the

universe will come back at you three times, you don't need

any other reason not to "cast an evil spell" on someone.


Nature of our way


l)As often as possible, hold the rites in forests, by the sea, on deserted mountaintops, or near tranquil lakes. If this is impossible, a garden or some chamber shall suffice, if it is readied with fumes or flowers.

2)Seek out wisdom in books, rare macuscripts, and cryptic poems if you will, but seek it also in simple stones and fragile herbs and in the cries of wild birds. Listen to the whisperings of the wind and the roar of the water if you would discover magick, for it is here that the old secrets are preserved.

3)Books contain words; trees contain energies and wisdom books ne'er dreamt of.

4)Ever remember that the Old Ways are constantly revealing themselves. Therefore be as the river willow that bends and sways with the wind. That which remains changeless shall outlive its spirit,but that which evolves and grows shall shine for centuries.

5)There can be no monopoly on wisdom. Therefore share what you will of our ways with others who seek them, but hide mystic lore from the eyes of those who would destroy, for to do otherwise increases their destruction.

6)Mock not the rituals or spell of another, for who can say yours are greater in power or wisdom?

7)Ensure that your actions are honorable, for all that you do shall return to you three-fold, good or bane.

8)Be wary of one who would dominate you, who would control and munipulate your workings and reverences. True reverence for the God and Goddess occurs within. Look with suspicion on any who would twist worship from you for their own gain or glory, but welcome those priestesses and priests who are suffused with love.

9)Honor all living things, for we are of the bird, the fish, the bee.Destroy not life, save it be to preserve your own.

~And this is the nature of our way~





(Please note, the date's given should be viewed as a guide only, once in tune with Witchcraft and the seasonal shifts, you will know WHY a particular Sabbat is celebrated, and the actual date therefore may be on OR close to the date given).

Samhain (Major Sabbat)

Southern Hemisphere: Around April 30 (Northern Hemisphere: Oct 31)

Halloween, All Hallows

Samhain (pronounced Sow-en) is the one Sabbat that is also widely celebrated amongst non-Pagans in the northern hemisphere. (In the Southern Hemisphere Halloween is at a different time to Samhain). It is the mid point between Autumn, and Winter. The God has died, and the Goddess mourns him until his rebirth at Yule. Therefore, it is a time to study the Dark Mysteries and honour the Dark Mother and the Dark Father, symbolized by the Crone and her aged Consort. It’s the last harvest festival, when the crops were safely stored for the coming Winter, and marks the beginning of the Wiccan year. As the veil between the worlds of life and death is thin on this night, we take this time to remember our beloved dead.  The Wheel of the Year is generally considered to start at Samhain, and is the Celtic Festival of the Dead. This idea originates in Irish Celtic traditions. The word "Samhain", literally means "End of Summer".



Traditions: Divination, ancestor altar, costumes, carving jack o' lanterns, spirit plate, the Feast of the Dead, feasting, paying debts, fairs, drying winter herbs, masks, bonfires, apple games, tricks, washing clothes, honouring the dead, prophesy, past life regressions, reflection & asking for guidance.    


Symbolism: Third Harvest, wisdom of the Crone, death of the God, reflection on our place in the Wheel of the Year, New Year, reincarnation, the dark mysteries, Rebirth after Death.


Correspondences: pumpkins, apples, sage, mugwort, gnomes.


Colours: Purple, black and orange.


Deities: The "darker" deities such as The Crone, Hecate(Greek), Cerridwen(Welsh-Scottish), Arianrhod (Welsh), Caillech (Irish-Scottish), Baba Yaga (Russian), Al-Ilat(persian), Bast (Egyptian), Persephone(Greek), Hel(Norse), Kali (Hindu), Anubis, Herne, Horned Hunter(European), Cernnunos(Greco-Celtic), Osiris(Egyptian), Hades(Greek), Gwynn ap Nudd (British), Anubis(Egyptian), Coyote Brother (Native American), Loki (Norse), Dis (Roman), Arawn (Welsh) all Death & Otherworld Gods & Goddesses

Herbs/incense: Rosemary, Hazelwood, copal, acacia, mugwort, sage, heather, mullein, patchouli


Food: turnips, apples, nuts, beef, pork, poultry, gingerbread, Mead, apple cider, mulled cider, mulled wines


Tools: Pentacles, various powders, salt, black altar cloth


Stones: Amber, beryl, bloodstone, carnelian, clear quartz, diamond, garnet, gold, granite, hematite, jasper, jet, marble, obsidian, opal, pyrite, rose sapphire, ruby, sandstone, smoky quartz, steel, tourmaline, turquoise


Creatures: Stag, jackal, cat, bat, ram, scorpion, heron, crow, robin, Goblins, harpies


Archangel: Ariel


Planetary Ruler: Pluto


Yule (Minor Sabbat)


Southern Hemisphere: Around June 21 (Northern Hemisphere: Dec 21)

Winter Solstice, Saturnalia, Alban

As the solstice, it is the longest night of the year, or the time of the greatest darkness. (ie the day with the shortest daylight hours, and consequently, the longest evening hours). It is the middle of winter, from this day forward, light begins to return and we celebrate the rebirth of the Sun God. It is predominantly a solar ritual when the Goddess gives birth to her son, the Sun God. The hours of darkness are long because the reborn Sun God is young and the world is still in the grip of winter's chill. We rejoice because our Sun God is reborn. We light fires or candles to welcome his returning light. At Yule, the Goddess's cycle of fertility has been completed. She has given birth and she must regenerate herself and the world throughout the winter in order to empower the land with fertility in the spring. Yule is a time of re-birth and the cycle has begun anew. Our predecessors noticed such occurrences and beseeched the forces of nature to lengthen the days and shorten the nights. A common Pagan theme is the ritual combat between the Holly King and his brother the Oak King. The Holly King rules the waning year from Midsummer until Yule. Now he has been slain by his brother and we celebrate the rise of the God of the waxing year, the Oak King. This is a time to be with loved ones. Yule is the remnant of early rituals celebrated to hurry the end of winter and to encourage the gift of spring, when food was again readily available. It serves to remind us that the cycle of death and rebirth is endless and that one phase must end for another to begin.

Traditions: lighting the Yule log, wreath making,  prayer sticks, Concentrate on the self,  lights, gift-exchanging, singing, feasting, resolutions, new fires kindled, strengthening family & friend bonds, generosity, yule log, hanging mistletoe, apple wassailing, burning candles, Yule tree decorating; kissing under mistletoe; needfire at dawn vigil; bell ringing/sleigh-bells; father yule


Symbolism: Rebirth of the Sun, hope born admidst the darkness


Correspondences: pine, holly, myrrh, cinnamon, Ivy, apples, oranges, nutmeg, lemons, evergreens of all sorts

Colours: White, gold, red, green, silver.


Deities: Oak King, Holly King,  Apollo, Arawn, Herne, Great Mother, Befana (strega), Holda (teutonic), Isis(egyptian), Triple Goddess, Mary(christian), Tonazin(mexican), Lucina(roman), St. Lucy (swedish),Bona Dea (roman), Mother Earth, Eve(Hebrew), Ops(roman Holy Mother), the Snow Queen, Hertha (German), Frey (Norse), Sun Child, Saturn(rome), Cronos (Greek), Horus/Ra(egyptian) , Mithras(persian), Balder(Norse), Santa Claus/Odin(teutonic),  Sol Invicta, Janus(God of Beginnings), Marduk (Babylonian)Old Man Winter

Herbs/incense: Holly, mistletoe, pine, cedar, frankincense, myrrh, cinnamon, orange, bayberry,  rosemary, juniper, sandalwood, blessed thistle, laurel, sage, yellow cedar.

Food: roasted turkey, nuts, apples, caraway rolls, dried fruit, fruitcakes, gingerbread men, mulled wine, eggnog, wassail

Tools: Bells, Candles


Stones: bloodstone, ruby, garnet, cat's eye


Creatures: stags, squirrels, wren/robin, phoenix, trolls, memecolion


Planetary ruler:


Imbolc (Major Sabbat)


Southern Hemisphere: Around August 1 (Northern Hemisphere: Feb 2)

Candlemas, Imbolg, Brigid's Day

It is a cross quarter, in between Winter Solstice and the spring Equinox. Imbolc represents the coming of spring. The days are getting longer. While it is still winter, changes are already taking place and spring will be here soon. It is an awakening of the earth and all of its creatures. It is also dedicated to the Celtic Goddess Brigid, who represents the goddess in her maiden form. She symbolizes new beginnings, purification, fire, and healing. She was honored in Ireland on this day by burning sacred bonfires in her name. The Roman Catholic Church later canonized her as St. Brigit and Imbolc became known as St. Brigit’s day. Non-Pagans celebrate today as Groundhog Day in the Northern hemisphere. Imbolc traditions center around new beginnings and clearing out the old in anticipation of the new. Spring-cleaning typically takes place at this time. Some pagans will also use a sacred broom to sweep the house, symbolically clearing away old or useless energies. Any remaining Yule greens are taken out of the house and burned. It is also a time to ask forgiveness from those you have hurt, so the new season can be started with a clean slate. Imbolc is a festival of lights. Candles are lit at dusk on Imbolc eve and placed in every window of the house. They are kept burning until dawn. This is symbolic of lighting the way in to the future and the coming season of spring and renewal. It is a time for hatching new ideas, growth, travel and celebrating freedom. A great time to make some blessed/holy water for the coming year.       


Traditions: Burning fires & candles, Make new starts in life, "spring" cleaning, share poetry, make a bed for Brigid, bread, corn dolls. It is considered taboo to cut or pick plants during this time.    


Symbolism: renewal, grown, purification, fertility, out with the old - in with the new 


Correspondences: carnation, rosemary, chamomile, milk, sylphs


Colours: Silver, yellow, pink, white, red. light green & Brown.


Deities: Brigid, Persephone, Demeter etc.


Herbs/incense:  Lemon, birch, willow & red sandalwood, Asafoetida, Banana, Basil, Beetroot, Cactus, Chamomile, Caper, Caraway, Catnip, Chilli pepper, Cinchona, Cinnamon, Clove, Copal, Coriander, Crocus, Cumin, Dittany of Crete, Elderflower, Fennel, Fern, Foxglove, Frankincense, Garlic, Ginger, Ginseng, Grass, Ground Ivy, Heather, Hemp, Horse Radish, Hyacinth, Irish Moss, Ivy, Lavender, Lilac, Marjoram, Mint, Myrrh, Parsley, Pepper, Pomegranate, Rice, Rosemary, Saffron, Sage, Sesame, Shallot, Wisteria, Wormwood, vanilla, angelica, ashleaf, balsams, bay, benzoin, blackberry, celandine, coltsfoot, coriander, dragon's blood, iris, lemon, mastic, rose hips, sunflower, tansy, vervain, violets, wheat, witch hazel and all white or yellow flowers.


Foods: Pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, poppy seed cakes, muffins, scones, and breads, all dairy products, peppers, onions, garlic, raisins, spiced wines and herbal teas.


Tools: Swords, oils (Basil, Bay, Camomile, Catnip, Cinnamon, Clove, Copal, Coriander, Eucalyptus, Frankincense, Lavender, Lilac, Mint, Myrrh, Orange, Pine, Rosemary, Sandalwood.), incenses.


Stones: Amethyst, Bloodstone, Clear Quartz, Citrine, Garnet, Green Tourmaline, Hematite, Iron, Lodestone, Onyx, Red Zircon, Rose Quartz, Ruby, Turquoise, Yellow Tourmaline.


Creatures: amethyst, bloodstone, garnet, ruby, onyx, turquoise, firebirds, dragons


Archangel: Raphael


Planetary Ruler: Moon


Ostara (Minor Sabbat)


Southern Hemisphere: Around Sept 21 (Northern Hemisphere: March 21)

Spring Equinox, Lady Day, festival of the trees.

Celebrated on the Vernal or Spring Equinox, this is another holiday that has been overlaid with Christian meanings (Easter in the Northern Hemisphere). Eggs & bunnies are typical symbols, representing new birth and new life. The winter, harsh and long, is now fading. The Earth is waking from her frozen slumber and it's time to rejoice in life, warmth and a renewal of the spirit. The name for this Sabbat actually comes from that of the Teutonic lunar Goddess, Eostre. Her chief symbols were the bunny (for fertility and because the Ancient Ones who worshipped her often saw the image of a rabbit in the full moon), and the egg (representing the cosmic egg of creation). This is where the customs of "Easter Eggs" and the "Easter Bunny" originated. Ostara is a time to celebrate the arrival of Spring, the renewal and rebirth of Nature herself, and the coming lushness of Summer. It is at this time when light and darkness are in balance, yet the light is growing stronger by the day. The forces of masculine and feminine energy, yin and yang, are also in balance at this time. At this time we think of renewing ourselves. We renew our thoughts, our dreams, and our aspirations. We think of renewing our relationships. This is an excellent time of year to begin anything new or to completely revitalize something. This is also an excellent month for prosperity rituals or rituals that have anything to do with growth. Plant the seeds (Physical & metaphoric) of long-term goals.


Traditions: Colouring eggs, decorating with flowers, decorating the altar with cocoons & Butterflies.        


Symbolism: The beginning of spring, new life and rebirth, the God and Goddess in Their youth, balance, fertility


Correspondences: jasmine, daffodil, lotus, new spring flowers


Colours: Lavender, white, pastel yellow & other pastels, light green.


Deities: All love, virgin, and fertility Goddesses - Venus, Persephone,   Eostre, Ostara, Kore, Maiden, Isis, Astarte, Ishtar, Minerva, Youthful Goddesses. Faerie Queen, Lady of the Lake, the Green Goddess, Anna Perenna, Athena,  Cybele, Blodeuwedd, Flidais, Gaia, Hera, Libera, Renpet, The Muses.

All love, song & dance, and fertility Gods - Atlas, Hare, Green Man, Youthful Gods, Warrior Gods, Taliesin, Lord of the Greenwood, Dagd, Cernunnos, Pan, Adonis, Attis, The Great Horned God, Liber, Mars, Mithras, Odin, Osiris, Thoth, Pan, the Green Man.

Herbs/incense: Violet, honeysuckle, lemongrass, spearmint, Heather, Rose, Lemon Verbena, Rosemary, Clove, Cinnamon, Dill, Lilac,  Jasmine, Carnation, Hibiscus, Geranium, Gardenia, Dragon's Blood, Ginger, Sweet Pea, Bay, Patchouli, Anise, Basil, Black Pepper, African violet, lotus, magnolia, sage lavender, narcissus, ginger, broom, strawberry, Acorn, Celandine, Cinquefoil, Dandelion, Dogwood, Iris, Tansy, ginger and any flower.


Foods: Hard-boiled eggs, honey cakes, fresh fruits, milk punch, leafy green vegetables, dairy foods, apples, nuts, flower dishes, sprouts
Plants & herbs: Acorn, celandine, cinquefoil, crocus, daffodil, dogwood, Easter lily, gorse, honeysuckle, iris, jasmine, jonquils, narcissus, olive, peony, rose, tansy, violets, woodruff and all spring flowers.

Tools: pendulum


Stones: Amethyst, aquamarine, bloodstone, red jasper


Creatures: Rabbits, snakes, unicorns


Planetary ruler: Mars


Beltane (Major Sabbat)


Sothern Hemisphere: Around November 1 (Northern Hemisphere May 1)

May Day, Walpurgis Night

Beltane is celebrated at the height of Spring and the flowering of life. The God born at Yule is now a man, and the sacred marriage between God and Goddess is consummated. The Goddess manifests as the May Queen and Flora. The God emerges as the May King and Jack in the Green. The danced Maypole represents Their unity, with the pole itself being the God and the ribbons that encompass it, the Goddess. The Colours are the Rainbow spectrum, and it is appropriate in Australia to use the symbolism of the rainbow serpent.  Beltane is a festival of flowers, growth, fertility, sensuality, love, passion and delight. However you celebrate Beltane, do it with joy and happiness!


Goddesses: all fertility, flower, song and dance, hunting, and virgin-mother Goddesses; Aphrodite (Greek), Artemis (Greek), Belili (Sumerian), Bloddeuwedd (Welsh), Cybele (Greek), Damara (English), Danu (Irish), Diana (Greek), Fand (Manx-Irish), Flidais (Irish), Flora (Roman), Frigg/Freya (Norse), Ishtar (Assyro-Babylonian), Rhea (Greek), Rhiannon (Welsh), Venus (Roman)


Gods: all fertility, love, hunting, and young father Gods; Baal (Phoenician), Bel (Sumerian), Cernunnos (Celtic), Cupid (Roman), Eros (Greek), Faunus (Roman), Frey (Norse), The Great Horned God (European), Herne (English), Orion (Greek), Pan (Greek)


Traditions: Handfastings,  maypole erection, dancing around the maypole, bonfires, jumping fire, mating, fairies, ribbons, picking flowers, making flower baskets and flower crowns, frolicking in the countryside, archery tournaments, sword dances, feasting, drinking & music, moving the herds to high pasture.


Symbolism: The Union of the Goddess and the God, Fertility in all things.

Correspondences: Rose, lilac, vanilla, salamanders


Colours: Red & white (symbolizing God and Goddess), dark green, dark yellow/gold rainbow spectrum, blue, pastels

Deities: - all fertility, lower, song and dance, hunting, and virgin-mother Goddesses: Aphrodite. Artemis, Belili, Bloddeuwedd, Cybele, Damara, Danu, Diana, Fand, Flidais, Flora, Frigg/Freya, Ishtar, Rhea, Rhiannon, Venus, Walpurga, Maia, Demeter, May Queen, Flower Goddesses, Lady of the Greenwood, Erzulie, Baubo, Rhea, Prithvi.

All fertility, love, hunting, and young father Gods: Baal, Bel, Cernunnos, Cupid, Eros, Faunus, Frey, The Great Horned God , Herne, Orion, Pan, Jack in the green, Greenman, May King.


Herbs/incense: Musk, vanilla, patchouli, clover flowers, oak, passion flower, frankincense, tuberose, lilac, almond, angelica, damiana, hawthorn, hibiscus, saffron, ash tree, bluebells, cinquefoil, daisy, hawthorn, ivy, marigold, meadowsweet, primrose, roses, satyrion root, woodruff, yellow cowslip, yarrow, elderflower, mugwort, mint, lily of the valley, foxglove, broom, thyme, sandalwood.


Food: dairy foods, foods made with flowers, red fruits such as strawberries andcherries, green herbal salads, red or pink wine punch, maybowl (an icebowl decorated with spring flowers and filled with maywine), large round oatmeal or barley cakes (also known as Beltane cakes), oysters, aphrodisiacs.

Tools: Ribbons, wand, chalice, candle/flames/lamps.


Stones: Emerald, malachite, carnelian, amber, sapphire, rose quartz.

Creatures: Faeries, Pegasus, satyrs, giants, bee, goat, cat, lynx, horse, leopard, swallow, dove, swan.


Archangel: Michael


Planetary ruler: Venus


Litha (Minor Sabbat)


Pronounced Ly-tha.

Southern Hemisphere: Around December 21 (Northern Hemisphere: June 21)

Midsummer, Summer Solstice, Whitsun

Midsummer is the longest day of the year, and the strength of the Sun God begins to wane. The Goddess has left her Maiden form of Imbolc and is now in her Mother aspect. This Sabbat celebrates the abundance and beauty of the Earth. From this day on, the days will wane, growing shorter and shorter until Yule. It is a time to absorb the Sun's warming rays, and to celebrate the ending of the waxing year and beginning of the waning year in preparation for the harvest to come. Midsummer is another fertility Sabbat, not only for humans, but also for crops and animals. This is a time to celebrate work and leisure, to appreciate children and childlike play and to look internally at the seeds you've planted that should be at full bloom. Some people believe that at twilight on this day, the portals between worlds open and the faery folk pass into our world; welcome them on this day to receive their blessings. Refill your herb collection for the coming year, as herbs
gathered on this day are said to be extremely powerful.


Traditions: Fairy magick, collecting herbs. One way to express the cycle of the Earth's fertility that has persisted from early pagan to modern times is the myth of the Oak King and the Holly King, gods respectively of the Waxing and Waning Year. The Oak King rules from Midwinter to Midsummer, the period of fertility, expansion and growth, and the Holly King reigns from Midsummer to Midwinter, the period of harvest, withdrawal and wisdom. They are light and dark twins, each being the other's alternate self, thus being one. Each represents a necessary phase in the natural rhythm; therefore, both are good. At the two changeover points, they symbolically meet in combat. The incoming twin -- the Oak King at Midwinter, the Holly King at Midsummer --"slays" the outgoing one. But the defeated twin is not considered dead -- he has merely withdrawn during the six months of his brother's rule. On Midsummer Night, it is said that field and forest elves, sprites and faeries abound in great numbers, making this a great time to commune with them. Litha is considered a time of great magickal power, one of the best times to perform magicks of all kinds. Especially effective magick and spells now include those for love, healing and prosperity. Wreaths can be made for your door with yellow feathers for prosperity and red feathers for sexuality, intertwined and tied together with ivy. This is also a very good time to perform blessings and protection spells for pets or other animals. Nurturing and love are key actions related to Midsummer. Litha is a good time to perform a ceremony of self-dedication or rededication to your spiritual path as a part of your Sabbat celebration. Fire, the Sun, blades, balefires, Sun wheels, summertime flowers (especially sunflowers), summer fruits, seashells, faeries, wheels, circles, spirals.


Symbolism: Honouring the God at His peak, honouring the pregnant Goddess


Correspondences: Orange, lemon, honeysuckle,  mistletoe, oak trees,


Colours: White, red, maize yellow or golden yellow, sea green, blue, brown/tan


Deities: All father gods and mother goddesses, pregnant goddesses and Sun deities. Particular emphasis might be placed on the goddesses Aphrodite, Astarte, Freya, Hathor, Ishtar and Venus and other goddesses who preside over love, passion and beauty. Other Litha deities include the goddesses Athena, Artemis, Dana, Kali, Isis and Juno and the gods Apollo, Ares, Dagda, Gwydion, Helios, Llew, Oak/Holly King, Lugh, Ra, Sol, Zeus, Prometheus and Thor.


Herbs/incense: Basil, Cedar, Chamomile, cinquefoil, copal, elder, fennel, fern, frangipani,  frankincense, galangal, heliotrope, hemp, larkspur, laurel, lavender, lemon, mistletoe, mugwort, oak, pine, roses, saffron, St. John's wort, sandalwood, thyme, verbena, wisteria, ylang-ylang, oak, ivy, saffron, carnation, daisy, honeysuckle, lily, male fern,  verbena, vervain.


Foods: honey, fresh vegetables of all kinds and fresh fruits such as lemons and oranges, pumpernickel bread as well as Summer squash and any yellow or orange coloured foods. Flaming foods are also appropriate. Traditional drinks are ale, mead, and fresh fruit juice of any kind.


Tools: flower-ringed cauldron, athame, A Golden Yellow Alter Cloth


Stones: all green gemstones, especially emerald and jade, tiger's eye, lapus lazuli and diamonds.


Creatures: robins, wrens, all Summer birds, horses and cattle, satyrs, faeries, firebirds, dragons, thunderbirds and manticores.


Planetary Ruler:


Lammas/ Lughnasadh  (Major Sabbat)


Southern Hemisphere: Around Feb 1 (Northern Hemisphere: August 1)

As the first of the three harvest festivals, much of the symbolism for Lammas revolves around grains and bread.  Sacrifices were common, though mostly symbolic, in order to ensure the continued success of the  harvest. At this time, witches cast spells for connectedness, career, health, and financial gain. Spells for abundance are completely appropriate now. As the sun is growing weaker, it is a good time to do grounding and sun meditations, then use the golden rays of the sun (gathered during meditation) in spellcasting.

Traditions: Games, the traditional riding of poles/staves, country fairs, breaking bread with friends, making corn dolls, harvesting herbs for charms/rituals, Lughnasadh fire with sacred wood & dried herbs, feasting, competitions, Lammas towers (fire-building team competitions), spear tossing, gathering flowers for crowns, fencing/swordplay, games of skill, martial sports, chariot races, hand-fastings, trial marriages, dancing round a corn mother (doll)


Symbolism: First harvest festival; aging of the Deities, honouring of Sun Gods

Correspondences: corn, sandalwood, heather.


Colours: Golden Yellow, Orange, Green, and Light Brown


Deities: The Mother, Dana ( Lughs wife & queen ), Tailltiu, Demeter, Ceres, the Barley Mother, Seelu Corn Mother, Isis (Her birthday is celebrated about this time), Luna, other agricultural Goddesses, the waxing Goddess,

Johnny Barleycorn, Lugh, Arianrhods golden haired son Lleu ( Welsh God of the Sun & Corn where corn includes all grains, not just maize), Dagon, Tammuz/ Dummuzi, Dionysus, plus all sacrificial Gods who willingly shed blood/give their life that their people/lands may prosper, all vegetation Gods, Tanus, Taranis, Tina, the waning God

Herbs/incense: Wood aloes, rose, rose hips, rosemary, chamomile, eucalyptus, safflower, corn, passionflower, frankincense, sandalwood, acacia flowers, aloes, cornstalks, Grapes, Heather, Blackberries, Sloe, Crab Apples, Pears. goldenrod, peony, nasturtium, clover blossom, yarrow, heliotrope, boneset, vervain, Queen Anne's lace, myrtle, sunflower, poppy, milkweed, Irish moss, mushroom, wheat, corn, rye, oat, barley, rice, garlic, onion, basil, mint, aloe, meadowsweet, apple leaf, raspberry leaf, strawberry leaf, bilberry leaf, blueberry leaf, mugwort, hops, holly, comfrey, grape vine, ivy, hazelnut, blackthorn, elder, bee pollen


Food: Breads, grains, potatoes, summer squash, cider, blackberry pies and jellies, berries, apples, roasted lamb, elderberry wine, meadowsweet tea

Tools: Chalice (Of plenty), spear, cauldron, sickle, scythe, mirrors, magickal waters


Stones: Aventurine, citrine, peridot, sardonyx


Creatures: Roosters, calves, the Phoenix, griffins, basilisk, centaurs


Archangel: Gabriel


Planetary Ruler: The Sun

Mabon (Minor Sabbat)


Southern Hemisphere: Around March 21 (Northern Hemisphere: Sept 21)

Autumn Equinox, Cornucopia

Mabon, (May-bon) is known as the Autumn Equinox, Harvest Home, Second Harvest, the Witches Thanksgiving and Siring Fate. (Mabon in Welsh means son.) This reference usually refers to the son of the Welsh goddess Madron, Mother and Son. The Mother and son aspect is the most common among the neo-pagans, and fits well with in the Wiccan perspective of the Holly King mythology. Autumn Equinox refers to a time of the year when day and night are equally balanced, and the weather grows colder as winter approaches. The sun is in the process of crossing the equator and in astrological terms is entering the sign of Libra. The sun is the focal point of energy (along with the moon) and such; its life force pushes us to discover more about ourselves. It is time for a cooperative outlook on that time of year, just what was needed by the communities, as they all worked together to complete the harvest. Harvest Home is an Anglo-Celtic version of the original Mabon, and fell in-between the First (Lugnasadh) and the Third (Samhain) Harvests. Harvests festivals were a very important part of the pre- industrialized culture. It was a time of relief and of rest. Relief that the crops were in and rest to catch their breath before the work of preparing for winter began. This was a time to give thanks, so take some time to think about what you are thankful for.   


Traditions: Making and drinking of wine (surplus fruit from the season), share with the less fortunate, gathering dried herbs, plants, seeds and seed pods, walking in the woods, scattering offerings in harvested fields, offering libations to trees, adorning burial sites with leaves, acorns, and pine cones to honor those who have passed over.


Symbolism: Second Harvest, the Mysteries, Equality and Balance          

Correspondences: grapes, blackberries, cedar.


Colours: Red, orange, russet, maroon, brown, and gold


Deities: Morgan, Epona, Lilitu, The Muses, Sophia, Modron, Mabon, Maponus, Herne, Cernunnos, Mannanan Mac Ler, Lord of Shadows, Ishtar, Isis, Demeter, Persephone, Grain Mother, Rhiannon, Dionysus, Bacchus, Hermes, Horned God, Mabon, Thoth

Herbs/incense: Clove, nutmeg, cinnamon, sage, juniper, pine, cedar, benzoin, milkweed, myrrh, solomon's seal, rose, passionflower, honeysuckle, marigold, ferns, tobacco, vegetables, thistle


Food: Breads, nuts, apples, pomegranates, grapes, acorns, wheat bread, goat, Indian corn, horn of plenty, cornbread, corn, root crops (ie onions, carrots, potatoes, etc.), dried fruits, apples, beans, and squash.

Tools: Bell, boline, red altar cloth


Stones: Sapphire, lapis lazuli, and yellow agates.


Creatures: Dogs, Wolves, Stag, Birds of Prey (especially the Blackbird, Owl, and Eagle), Salmon, Goat, Gnomes, Sphinx, Minotaurs, Cyclops, Andamans, and Gulons.


Planetary Ruler: Mercury 


Spell work by Lunar Phase


Abundance:  waxing to full moon.

Addictions (TO End):  Waning moon.

Artistic Creations:  waxing to full moon.

Bad Habits (to break):  Waning moon.

Bad Luck (to reverse):  Waning moon

Beauty and Health:  full moon.

Bindings:  Waning moon.

Blessings:  full moon.

Career Advancement:  waxing moon.

Communication:  full moon.

Curses, Hexes (to break):  waning moon

Divinations:  waxing and full moons.

Energy Raising:  waxing moon.

Exorcisms:  waning moon.

Fear (overcoming):  waning moon.

Fertility Rituals:  waxing and full moons.

Forgiveness:  new moon.

Friendship:  waxing moon.

Garden Planting Spells:  waxing moon.

Goals (attainment of):  waxing to full moon.

Good Luck:  waxing moon.

Growth (of an kind):  waxing moon.

Harmony:  waxing moon.

Happiness:  waxing and full moons.

Healings (to increase health):  waxing moon.

Healings (to end sickness):  waning moon.

House Blessings:  full moon.

Inspiration:  waxing and full moons.

Intuition:  full moon.

Jinx-Breaking:  waning moon.

Judgment:  waxing and full moons.

Liberation (to free oneself from something):  waning moon.

Love Magick:  waxing and full moons.

Love Spells (to reverse):  waning moon.

Lunar Goddess Invocations:  full moon.

Money Matters (to increase wealth): waxing moon.

Negativity (to banish):  waning moon.

Nightmares (to banish):  waning moon.

Obtaining (things and goals):  waxing and full moons.

Omens:  full moon.

Overcoming:  waning moon.

Peace (to end hostility, war):  waning moon.

Power:  waxing and full moons.

Prophetic Dreams:  full moon.

Protection:  waxing moon.

Psychic Powers (developing, strengthening):  full moon.

Quests:  new moon.

Real Estate (to buy):  waxing moon

Real Estate (to sell):  waning moon.

Sexual Desires (to stimulate, increase):  waxing moon.

Shape shifting:  full moon.

Spirit Conjurations:  full moon.

Strength:  waxing moon.

Teaching:  waxing and full moons.

Transformations:  full moon.

Travel:  waxing moon.

Unions (marriages, business partnerships):  waxing and full  moons.

Weather workings (to bring forth):  waxing moon.

Weather workings (to quell):  waning moon.

Weight Gain:  waxing moon.

Weight Loss:  waning moon.

Wisdom (to increase):  waxing and full moons.

Wish-magick:  waxing and full moons.

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